25. Cabaret Voltaire by Various Artists, 1916
The inklings of what performance art could achieve, outside of a theatrical context, stem from the Dada movement's home base in Zurich, at the legendary Cabaret Voltaire. Founded in the backroom of the Holländische Meierei tavern in 1916 by Hugo Ball and Emmy Hemmings, the Cabaret Voltaire was a space of raucous artistic experimentation that many times led to the uproar of the crowd-more than once, the audience attacked the stage of the Cabaret in protest. The radical, chaotic performances happening here included new forms of poetry, avant-garde music, mutations of costumes, paintings, and simultaneous performance of all these. The Cabaret Voltaire helped expand international cultural ideas, as refugees from all over Europe during World War I found a creative outlet in the Dada Haus, as it was also known.