"Sometimes we stand on the shoulders of our ancestors. Sometimes we stand on their necks," tweeted American poet Saul Williams. And this is exactly what is happening with the carding discussion in Toronto. While Desmond Cole has played an instrumental role in bringing the issue back into mainstream media with his recent article in Toronto Life, the focus on Cole's recent clamour has erased the anti-racial profiling giants who fought this fight before him. Decades of activism and mobilization have led us to this moment—where the trampling of human rights beneath the banner of ‘carding’ is a citywide discussion—and we cannot forget those who came before.

Here's a look at the recent history of racial profiling in Toronto.