German-born Ludwig Mies van der Rohe is considered to be a father of modern architecture. One of Mies’ most famous works was his Barcelona Pavilion at the International Exposition in Barcelona (where he also designed the Barcelona chair). Mies came to America in 1937, after the Bauhaus school (where he was the director) was shut down due to pressure from the Nazi government. In 1944, he became a U.S. citizen and began one of the most successful periods in his career. During this time, he designed and built The Farnsworth House (a minimalist house with only one interior room that was completely enclosed in glass—similar to his friend Philip Johnson’s Glass House in New Canaan, Conn.). In 1954, he completed the Seagram Building in NYC (with Philip Johnson), and in 1957 he completed the twin towers in Chicago—two of his most famous works. He was awarded the AIA Gold Medal and the Royal Gold Medal for his architectural work.