Ralph Bakshi was to animation what R. Crumb was to comics. 1972's "Fritz the Cat" (based on a Crumb comic), his first feature film, was the first animated film to receive an X rating from the MPAA. Unsurprisingly, it was an enormous success. This led to more mainstream works including a "Lord of the Rings" adaptation in 1978, and the live/animated feature "Cool World" in 1992. Born in Palestine, Bakshi was raised in New York City—which he mined for the settings of "Fritz the Cat," converting photographs via Rapidograph into animation cels.