In 2001, futurist Ray Kurzweil postulated that the 21st century would see technology advance at a rate 20 times what was experienced during the 20th century. While we’ve still got another 85 years until we’ll know whether or not he was correct, it’s hard to argue with his prediction so far. 

Over the past decade and a half, we’ve seen desktop computers shrink down to the size of a deck of cards, while simultaneously becoming unthinkably more powerful. We’ve witnessed a nearly boundless accumulation of human knowledge categorized and made easily available to anyone with an Internet connection. And we’ve seen just about every industry enthusiastically embrace these sweeping technological advancements in order to gain an edge.

Sports are no different, and as leagues, teams, and athletes seek out any advantage they can find, a niche has developed to support that appetite for innovation. Here are some of the most impressive breakthroughs that have occurred within just the past five years: